Over the past two years, I have been studying the hydrologic cycle in West Greenland, primarily conducting a lake water balance to better understand the key components of the system: precipitation, evaporation, and transpiration.
There is limited knowledge of these processes in the Arctic and they will play an important role in the effects of future climate change in the region. I traveled to the Kangerlussuaq region of Greenland the past two summers as a member of the Dartmouth IGERT for Polar Environmental Change and of the iisPACS group (Isotopic Investigation of Sea-ice and Precipitation in the Arctic Climate System), led by Xiahong Feng and Eric Posmentier of Dartmouth College, and John Burkhart of the Norwegian Institute for Air Research.
Oh the places you'll go!
Traveling to Kangerlussuaq is quite exciting! We flew with the Air National Guard’s 109th division on LC130 flights out of the Stratton ANG base in Scotia, NY. It was an awesome experience riding in these classic military planes, sitting in cargo netting, and even landing on the ice on our trip to Summit, Greenland.
Once in Kangerlussuaq, we stayed at KISS (Kangerlussuaq International Science Support) and on our first trip, we even camped out with the IGERT group near the ice edge on a beautiful lake for about a week. This provided an amazing setting for many delicious camp-cooked meals and great conversations among scientists of various disciplines sharing their knowledge.
Going with the flow
A simpler hydrologic cycle and often beautiful weather provide a great place to learn more about various processes in the water cycle. My research includes sampling the water of these lakes and measuring its hydrogen and oxygen isotopic composition. By looking at the isotopic balance of these lakes, in addition to the volume of water that moves in and out, we can gain a better understanding of the primary processes controlling these lakes – precipitation, evaporation, and transpiration.
After sampling this past summer, we now have a record of three years of isotopic data in order to see how these lakes change from year to year. With the first time period being relatively dry and the past year very wet, we have a great contrast to help us learn more about the local hydrologic processes.
The weather is here...
In addition to sampling the lakes, we also measured the isotopic composition of the water vapor in the region around Kangerlussuaq and directly above the lakes. To do this, we drove around our LGR isotopic water vapor analyzer to measure the changes in isotopic composition across the landscape. In addition, we took the analyzer out onto the lakes to see how the composition changes over the water as we navigated a small inflatable boat across the lake.
We also took a variety of weather measurements including temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction, among others. We would either put our weather station on a tower attached to the truck as we drove around, or on a tower next to the lake we were sampling to provide addition information to understand evaporation rates.
In addition to the sampling work, I had a number of other great experiences exploring the region. We were able to do a lot of hiking across the tundra (we had to get to the lakes somehow!) which resulted in some incredible views of the lake filled landscape. Sitting up on a mountain while watching the sun set over the ice sheet is a memory I will never forget. We saw a ton of wildlife including musk ox, caribou, Arctic hare, and much more! We also met lots of great people along our journey.
These incredible journeys to Greenland would not have been possible without the logistical support by Polar Field Services and I will be forever grateful for all of their help. If you want to follow along with more of my groups’ adventures, feel free to check out the Dartmouth IGERT blog and the iisPACS blog.